Specific tissues in the body require adequate iodine and the reduced form of the element, iodide, for normal metabolism and optimal health. Adequate iodide uptake and organification of iodine by the thyroid gland is required for the production, storage and release of thyroid hormones. Triiodothyronine (T3) regulates metabolism in several tissues by affecting energy production and neuronal and sexual development. Iodine insufficiency is associated with “sub-clinical” thyroid deficiency, weight gain, loss of energy, goiter and impaired mental function. Iodine is also concentrated in breast tissue where it elicits anti-proliferative effects and protection against fibrocystic breast disease and cancer. Iodine and organic iodine compounds are also concentrated and secrete by the gastric mucosa, salivary glands and the cervix.
Iodine status and metabolism are affected not only by iodine intake, which has decreased significantly, but also by intake and retention of goitrogenic halides bromide and fluoride. Excessive intake of the antagonistic halides can accumulate in tissues, displace iodine and compromise the production of thyroid hormones and the integrity of the thyroid and mammary glands. Antagonistic bromide is abundant in commercially produced baked goods, soft drinks, pesticides, brominated chemicals and some medications.
The urine halides test provided comprehensive assessment of iodine sufficiency and retention of antagonistic halides in a single test. The test requires a spot urine specimen, preferably first morning void, for determination of baseline halide levels. The specific halides are analyzed in urine using the most accurate methodology available for each element. Iodine and bromine are measured by ICP-MS as is used by the CDC. Flouride is measured by ion selective electrode.